Helodus sp.
Permian Vertebrates of
Waurika Oklahoma
The fossils on this page all originate from the Lower Permian Waurika locality in Oklahoma. This site has been known
for over 100 years and in that time has been extensively collected. Listed below are some of the many different
fossils that occur at the site, specifically the important and often overlooked vertebrate microfossils. Although much of
the material is well known, occasionally some unusual material occurs, which is probably undescribed. You can order
any of the fossils illustrated by
clicking here. Larger specimens can be found on our other Waurika pages.
Helodus sp. large teeth - £10/$15

Excellent quality complete teeth from this Lower Permian shark. Each tooth
measures on average 3 to 4 mm wide and has a complete crown and root. The
specimens are like those shown (left).
These teeth represent a more uncommon part of the Waurika shark fauna and
can only be found by searching matrix under the microscope. Previously identified
as
Acrodus.
Helodus sp. - £6/$10 for 5

These teeth are smaller specimens than those
listed previously, measuring only 1 to 2 mm in size.
Each collection is housed in a 1 inch gem jar and
includes complete and near complete specimens
like those shown.
Barbclabornia luederensis
Barbclabornia collection - £3/$5

This genus is a common member of the Waurika microfauna. The teeth reach a
maximum size of only a couple of millimetres and can only be found under the
microscope. Each collection consists of 3 teeth and all are complete with both
cusps and root. These are very attractive teeth that have formerly been included
in both the genus
Xenacanthus and Orthocanthus.
Orthocanthus compressus
Orthocanthus collection - £5/$8
Each collection consists of 3 teeth with a maximum size of
~7mm. Two specimens are complete with both cusps and a
complete root, the others show some wear to the cusps. The
blades are often serrated.

Orthocanthus collection #2 £5/$8
5 smaller or lateral position teeth, all complete ~2 to 3mm
Miscellaneous Orthocanth Sharks
Orthocanth shark denticle collection - £5/$8
This collection is for five different types of shark denticle. These fossils
measure around 1 mm (some larger, some smaller) and represent
denticles from the skin and mucous membranes of the freshwater sharks
inhabiting the Waurika environment. The denticles belong to more than
one species but as of yet they have not been definitively assigned. Each
collection comes with two colour ID cards as shown (left) that illustrate
typical specimen in the collection. All specimens are complete and
include some wickedly fearsome looking specimens!
Orthocanth shark denticle cluster - £3/$5

This collection is for 2 nice, large (2 to 3 mm) denticle clusters from an Orthocanth
shark. The specimens are like those shown with multiple cusps and nice roots. Each
specimen has complete cusps and has the fearsome appearance typical of these
unusual fossils.
FRESHWATER SHARKS
AMPHIBIANS
Trimerorhachis insignis
Trimerorhachis tooth collection - £4/$6

This collection is for three teeth belonging to the
amphibian
Trimerorachis insignis. Each tooth is
complete with an excellent tip (as shown left). The
specimens vary in size from around 2 mm up to  
~6 mm. The teeth are housed in a 1 inch gem jar.
Trimerorhachis was a common member of the
Waurika fauna and teeth can be quiet numerous.
Orthocanthus platypternus collection - £5/$8

This species is a common member of the Waurika fauna. The teeth reach a
maximum size of around 6 mm and are characterised by a flat root and
divergent cusps of notably different size. Each collection consists of 3 teeth
showing excellent preservation and measuring between 2 and 5 mm long.
Each collection shows a variety of sizes and shapes (see image left). The
teeth are characterised by a flat root, asymmetrical cusps and no serrations.
Orthocanthus platypternus
Dimetrodon sp.
Dimetrodon? palatine tooth - £6/$10

This collection is for one palatine tooth from the
pelycosaur Dimetrodon. These teeth were in the
roof of the mouth. On average the specimens
measure 2 to 3 mm long and have a very distinct
shape (quite unlike any other teeth at the site).
Archeria sp.
Archeria tooth - £3/$5

This collection is for a complete tooth belonging to
the amphibian
Archeria. Each tooth is complete,
with some typical examples shown left. The
average size is ~ 4 to 5 mm.
MICROFOSSIL MATRIX
Microfossil matrix sample collection - £20/$35
This collection is ideal for anyone with a keen interest in microfossils or those wishing to pick their own specimens
from the fossiliferous matrix of the Waurika site. The collection consists of
3 different samples, all of which have
been sieved and washed to remove the excess clay. There is a coarse, fine and very fine sample included. The
coarse includes pieces of bone, scale, complete and broken teeth etc. from fish, sharks, reptiles and amphibians.
The fine sample can still have teeth of the reptiles and amphibians but shark material is more dominant. The very
fine sample is rich in micro shark remains, especially some of the denticles. The coarse and fine samples are
shown above, but there are many, many more fossils to be picked from the samples than is visible. We cannot
guarantee what will be in any sample, but there are hundreds of specimens per collection to be picked. Great stuff
and each collection comes with a set of ID cards so that you can name many of the specimens that you find.
Petalodont sharks
Janassa sp.
Janassa sp. - £12/$20 - Rare!

These are rare teeth at Waurika and are rarely found complete. The teeth are
characterised by a S shaped profile with the root steeply inclined to the rear and
root angled forward. In the few available specimens none have a complete root,
but in the typical examples shown the bradydont crown is complete and part of
the root is still attached. Rare and unsual teeth.
The following three types of teeth shown below are all Petalodont shark teeth. There is some debate as to how
many genera appear in the Lower Permian, with some trains of thought believing there is only one (
Janassa).
Regardless, the teeth below have been divided into three distinct morphologies as the images show.
Petalodont type 1 - £6/$10
Typical flattened crowns with a
weakly developed second cusp.
Average size 1 to 2 mm
Petalodont type 1 - £20/$30
Three strongly developed cusps
Average size 1 to 2mm. Rare!
Petalodont type 2 - £10/$15
Strongly developed second cusp.
Average size ~1 to 2 mm. Rare!
Orthocanth shark fan-type denticle cluster - £2/$3

This collection is for an ~2 mm denticle cluster from an Orthocanth shark. The
specimens are like those shown with multiple cusps forming a fan shaped structure
and with a distinct root. Each specimen has several complete cusps and has the
fearsome appearance typical of these unusual fossils.
REPTILES
Enamel fish scales and spines - £4/$6
This collection is for a collection of 6 enameloid scales and spines from some of the
fish at the Waurika locality. Few of the species have been described as articulated
remains are extremely rare but a wide variety of different scale types are known.
Most consist of bony plates with buttons and knobs of enamel, whereas others are
more typical scales with rhombic shapes and patterned surfaces. Nice and attractive
specimens varying in size from 2 to 7mm and occasionally larger.
© L. Martin
Sharks, Fish and Microvertebrates
Barbclabornia jaw reconstruction - £40/$60

These tiny orthocanth shark jaws are really cute. They
show the anterior and medial dentition of the upper
and lower jaws. Every tooth is a genuine fossil and
they are arranged as if the shark's mouth was wide
open and about to bite. The jaws are housed in 1 inch
gem jars as shown.
Orthocanthus compressus jaw reconstruction - £40/$60 each
These Orthocanthus shark jaws show the anterior and medial dentition of the upper and
lower jaws. Every tooth is a genuine fossil and they are arranged as if the shark's mouth
was wide open and about to bite. The jaws are housed in 1.75 inch gem jars as shown.
Orthocanthus platypternus jaw reconstruction - £40/$60 each
These Orthocanthus shark jaws show the anterior and medial dentition of the upper and
lower jaws. Every tooth is a genuine fossil and they are arranged as if the shark's mouth
was wide open and about to bite. The jaws are housed in 1.75 inch gem jars as shown.
Permian Shark Tooth Collection - £10/$15
This collection contains a nice overview of the Permian shark fauna of Texas and
Oklahoma. Included are
Orthocanthus teeth and a denticle from the Texas Red Beds,
plus a denticle and teeth belonging to
Orthocanthus compressus, O. platypternus,
Helodus
and Barbclabornia from Oklahoma. Comes with a set of ID cards as shown.